The invention of computer simulations used for practicing surgical maneuvers in a video game-like format has an ancestry in the artificial limbs of history and is reflected, grotesquely, in Edgar Allan Poe's short story, "The Man That Was Used Up ". The nineteenth century worked to ensure that the incomplete body did indeed retain a sense of self by creating prostheses to mimic corporeal wholeness. Our present-day technology seems intent on doing precisely the opposite, deliberately fragmenting the body and challenging our understanding of the body and the prosthetic.
Behling, Laura L., "Replacing the Patient: The Fiction of Prosthetics in Medical Practice" (2005). Scholarship and Professional Work of the Associate Provosts. Paper 1.