It is no secret that across the world, women continue to be ignored and stereotyped by mainstream news media. Indeed, more than 25 years ago, Gallagher wrote that the most important image of women in the media across the world is a non-image: “It is the absence of women in the media output which becomes most striking, once it has been highlighted” (1981, p. 72). Similarly, Tuchman argued that the mass media subject women to “symbolic annihilation” through exclusion and trivialization (1978, p. 8). The most recent Global Media Monitoring Project, which included 76 countries and is of itself a result of media activism, found that women still constitute only 21 percent of news subjects --- those interviewed or whom the news is about (WACC, 2005).
Geertsema, M. (2008). Conceptualizing Strategies for Research and Activism: A Media Sociology Approach. Media Report to Women, 36 (1), pp. 8-15.