Given the importance of predictive expectations in consumer satisfaction models, confounds in the measurement of expectations could result in misspecified models. Results of two empirical studies indicate that consumers interpret the word "expect" in numerous ways. A large minority of consumers interpret "expect" to mean "desire." The magnitude of the resulting confounding effect is illustrated by comparing results using a measure of expectations alone with results obtained when using a measure of expectations together with a measure of desires in a side-by-side format.
Spreng, Richard A., Robert D. Mackoy, and Cornelia Dröge (1998), "Confounds in the Measurement of Predictive Expectations," Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, Vol. 11, 1-7.