I have always been intrigued with the toponymic anomaly of the name of the Australian state of New South Wales. Obviously there are countless examples of toponyms that are preceded by the adjective New; these are, or were, usually in honor or remembrance of countries (New England, New Spain, New France, New Mexico, New Guinea, etc.) or cities (New York, New Orleans, New Rochelle, New London, New Paltz, etc.) . Clearly such names arose in response to newly settled or newly discovered places, but there are other reasons when New might have been used.
Bernard, THomas I.
"Onomastic Anomaly: New South Wales,"
Word Ways: Vol. 35
, Article 14.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.butler.edu/wordways/vol35/iss2/14