The Existence of Gender-Specific Promotion Standards in the U.S.
Managerial and Decision Economics
This paper is motivated by the claim that promotion probabilities are lower for women than men. Using data from the 1984 and 1989 National Longitudinal Youth Surveys, this paper tests this claim and two related hypotheses concerning training and ability. It is found that females are less likely to be promoted than males, and females receive less training than males. The relationship between promotion and gender varies across occupations, however, suggesting that the alleged glass ceiling faced by women and other minorities in the workplace is not uniform across all labor markets.
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Paulson Gjerde, Kathy, "The Existence of Gender-Specific Promotion Standards in the U.S." (2002). Scholarship and Professional Work - Business. 195.