Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date


Publication Title

Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide

First Page


Last Page


Additional Publication URL


K-12 students whose first language is not English are identified upon enrollment in U.S. schools through a home language survey and are immediately assessed to determine whether English as a second language (ESL) services are required. Students who do not pass this initial screening assessment are classified as English Language Learners (ELLs), or as limited English proficiency (LEP) students, and are identified to receive school-provided English language development (ELD) and accommodations. Students who pass the initial screener or who demonstrate English proficiency two years in a row on state-mandated annual assessments are deemed fluent or fully English proficient (FEP) students and are exited from ESL services. Students who exit ESL services must be monitored for two years to ensure that they continue to be academically successful without ESL services.


This is a post-print version of this encyclopedia entry. It was originally published in the following book:

Adams, S. R. (2013). English Proficiency / Fluent English Proficient Students. In J. Ainsworth (ed.), Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide (pp. 242-245). SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781452205052.