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TP53 mutations are associated with adverse outcomes and shorter response to hypomethylating agents (HMAs) in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Limited data have evaluated the impact of the type, number, and patterns of TP53 mutations in response outcomes and prognosis of MDS. We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics, outcomes, and response to therapy of 261 patients with MDS and TP53 mutations. Median age was 68 years (range, 18-80 years). A total of 217 patients (83%) had a complex karyotype. TP53 mutations were detected at a median variant allele frequency (VAF) of 0.39 (range, 0.01-0.94). TP53 deletion was associated with lower overall response rate (ORR) (odds ratio, 0.3; P = .021), and lower TP53 VAF correlated with higher ORR to HMAs. Increase in TP53 VAF at the time of transformation was observed in 13 patients (61%), and previously undetectable mutations were observed in 15 patients (65%). TP53 VAF was associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.02 per 1% VAF increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.03; P < .001). Integration of TP53 VAF and karyotypic complexity identified prognostic subgroups within TP53-mutant MDS. We developed a multivariable model for overall survival that included the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) categories and TP53 VAF. Total score for each patient was calculated as follows: VAF TP53 + 13 × IPSS-R blast score + 16 × IPSS-R cytogenetic score + 28 × IPSS-R hemoglobin score + 46 × IPSS-R platelet score. Use of this model identified 4 prognostic subgroups with median survival times of not reached, 42.2, 21.9, and 9.2 months. These data suggest that outcomes of patients with TP53-mutated MDS are heterogeneous and that transformation may be driven not only by TP53 but also by other factors.
This article was originally published in Blood Advances, 2020, Volume, Issue 3.
The version of record is available at Blood Advances. Archived with permission from Blood Advances, all rights reserved.
Montalban-Bravo, Guillermo; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Benton, Christopher B.; Class, Caleb A.; Chien, Kelly S.; Sasaki ,, Koji; Naqvi, Kiran; Alvarado, Yesid; Kadia, Tapan M.; Ravandi, Farhad; Daver, Naval; Takahashi, Koichi; Jabbour, Elias; Borthakur, Gautham; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Konopleva, Marina; Soltysiak, Kelly A.; Pierce, Sherry R.; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Patel, Keyur P.; Kantarjian, Hagop; and Garcia-Manero, Guillermo, "Genomic context and TP53 allele frequency define clinical outcomes in TP53-mutated myelodysplastic syndromes" (2020). Scholarship and Professional Work – COPHS. 260.