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Journal of Pediatric Pharmacological Therapy



Background In 2008, the empiric vancomycin dosing recommendation in children at our institution was changed from 40 to 60 mg/kg per day. Subsequently, an increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving vancomycin was suspected. The objective of this study was to evaluate AKI in children receiving vancomycin and to determine risk factors for AKI development.

Methods Medical records of patients aged 30 days through 17 years who received vancomycin for at least 72 hours between January and December 2007 (40 mg/kg per day) and January and December 2010 (60 mg/kg per day) were reviewed. Patients with cystic fibrosis, an elevated baseline serum creatinine, or without a serum creatinine concentration obtained after receipt of vancomycin were excluded. Acute kidney injury was defined using adapted pediatric RIFLE criteria as an increase in serum creatinine from baseline of 50% or more.

Results Acute kidney injury occurred in 19.4% of the 859 children included, with no difference between the 2007 and 2010 periods (18.8% vs 20%, respectively; P = .636). Intensive care unit admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–2.94) and an initial vancomycin trough concentration ≥15 mg/L (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.21–3.92) were determined to be significantly associated with AKI.

Conclusions These results suggest an initial vancomycin serum trough concentration of ≥15 mg/L and intensive care unit admission are predictors of AKI in this pediatric population.


This is a post-print version of an article originally published in Journal of Pediatric Pharmacological Therapy,2013, Volume 19, Issue 3.. The version of record is available at Oxford Journals.