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By the problem of Liberal Orthodoxy we mean a particular instance of the all-European and, indeed, worldwide problem of the adjustment of living religious traditions to a dynamic and distinct modern culture claiming, in greater or lesser degree, spiritual and practical autonomy in the direction of human affairs. The great revolutions of modern times, of which the Russian Revolution of 1905 is one, are particular instances of the advancing of this claim of autonomy. Liberal Orthodoxy is any Orthodoxy in modern times which envisages at least some opportunities for constructive and cooperative relationships with the forces of this modern culture; the opposite is an Orthodoxy that looks at modernity with indifference or as a manifest stronghold of Satan and his angels upon which the true Church is called to make holy war in the name of traditional values.