Traditionally, the president is seen as getting his way when it comes to foreign-policy issues; however, with treaty making, an aspect very much related to foreign policy, things are different. Treaties are seen as salient, high-profile, and requiring direct positive action by the Senate. Presidents with high approval ratings would expect to have a relatively easy job at getting treaties approved by the Senate, but when a president is faced with low public approval, one of the most useful tools at his disposal to get Senate approval is not in play. The authors look at a case study of President Carter and the ratification of the Panama Canal Treaties to suggest what “weak” presidents can do to get their way.
Wert, Joe and Staten, Cliff
"Weak Presidents, Treaty Ratification, and Presidential Leadership Style,"
Journal of the Indiana Academy of the Social Sciences: Vol. 18
, Article 11.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/jiass/vol18/iss1/11