Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Honors Thesis



First Advisor

Dr. Olujide Akinbo


The discovery and ability to provide an absolute concentration of biomarkers in the body can facilitate early diagnoses of diseases. This information can also be used for more accurate and unique treatments for those patients. While major advances in molecular mass spectrometry allows for a sensitive identification of these biomarkers, they are limited to only four orders of magnitude in their dynamic ranges. Due to this, detection and quantitation of low abundant proteins, which tend to make up these vital biomarkers, is very difficult. On the other hand, ICP-MS offers a wider dynamic range (up to 12 orders of magnitude) for quantitation of most metals. The goal of this work is to utilize metal (in particular, lanthanides) tagging to derivatize proteins for ICP-MS measurement. In this study we will report the preliminary analytical performance for a single quadrupole ICP-MS for the determination of lanthanides in solution as well as the first derivatization step of the proteins – conjugating a metal chelator to a protein.