Word Ways


Jim Puder


To set the scene for this leggy crab story, let us first consider a unitary approach to the fallow (but far from exhausted) topic of rotated writing. To begin with some definitions, by "letters" in this context is meant the 52 upper case (u.c.) and lower case (l.c.) letters of the alphabet in their simplest sans-serif forms (in which M and W are stipulated to be exact mutual inverts, the upper and lower loops of B, S and s are stipulated to be equal in size, and so forth); by "words" and "sentences" in this context is meant words and sentences composed of such letters; and by a "rotation" in this context is meant a 180-degree turning in one of the three orthogonal spatial dimensions.