One of the pleasures of the logologist is investigating the relations between pairs of words. Words can be characterized in four ways: spelling (or appearance), sound (or pronunciation), meaning (or definition), and origin (or derivation). Two words can be either identical or different with respect to each of these properties; thus, there are 16 different ways in which word-pairs can be classified, ranging from identical in all four respects to different in all four respects. The 14 intermediate cases, those in which a pair of words are identical in some respects but differ in others, are the ones of most interest to the logologist.
"A Classification of Words,"
Word Ways: Vol. 8
, Article 14.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.butler.edu/wordways/vol8/iss3/14