Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Business Venturing

First Page


Last Page




Drawing on the network literature and attention-based view, we examine the extent to which international exposure from key informal (geographically proximate firms) and formal (alliance partners) network relationships impacts new venture internationalization. Our findings are three-fold. First, international exposure from both types of network relationships positively influence new venture internationalization, and serve as substitutes for each other. Second, the effects differ based on the age of the venture. While older ventures benefit more from international exposure from alliance partners, younger ventures are more influenced by international exposure from geographically proximate firms. Third, our analysis confirms a three-way interactive effect of age and international exposure from informal and formal relationships on new venture internationalization.


This is a post-print version of an article originally published in Journal of Business Venturing, 2013, Volume 28, Issue 2.


The version of record is available through: Elsevier.