Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Honors Thesis



First Advisor

Scott Swanson


This thesis will highlight some of the major technological inventions in the field of surgery during this time range, but more importantly will utilize the scarce resources available to piece together why these technologies did advance and how they played a role in the professionalization of surgery as a whole. The resources currently available to determine the advances in surgical tools and techniques either lack written descriptions of their uses, and are just picture books, or are beyond my ability to use since they are in foreign languages. Not only this, but there are no written works already published that focus specifically on this topic. I will answer the above proposed questions that have not been tackled by any historian before to determine how technology and society together transformed surgery.